Superficial Geology of Dundas Valley and Western Ancaster – William Kennedy 1882

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One peculiarity of the springs is that they are only found in certain band like traets, and are always more or less deeply seated Springs.

The superficial waters on the margin of this band are perfectly fresh and apparently bear no relation to whatever to the water’s underneath.

In addition to the Sulfur Springs there are also Saline Springs running in a direction nearly parallel to the sulfur.

On Lot 34 of the third concession of Ancaster a well gives brackish or salt water and on lot 39 of the concession of the same township a salt well is found.   This well what’s considered of sufficient strength to warrant an attempt to make salt being made again in the valley. A well charged with salt is reported, there is also a saline well in a brook near Dundas.

Sulphur Springs are by no means rare in districts overlaid by the Niagara group but the peculiar positions of the springs boldin this district seems worthy of remark.

No springs would rise from the rock unless there were fractures or fissures in the rock enabling them to reach the surface. May not these fractures be the side of the Canyon though which an ancient stream past on its way from the present course of the grand River to the outlet through the valley.

The evidence of the saline Springs appears to me to show that there is a gradual underground drainage from the higher bags of the Salina or Onondaga Group towards Lake Ontario or in the direction of the lowest level.


Of the present surface drainage enough has already been said to show that with the exception of one or two streams at the most the present system is altogether of recent origin.

The only stream which I have observed that can be really described as to be of pre-glacial  or inter-glacial seal origin is the one at Ancaster.   From the drift filling its old channel and from the position in which it enters the valley, it can easily be inferred that this stream existed at a time before the ice action set in and that it entered the valley when a current was flowing through the valley towards Lake Ontario

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